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PostPosted: Sun Aug 07, 2005 5:50 pm 
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jonathan wrote:
this is hard to reply to, as much as id due to the subject matter as to how much you guys bloody write!


Hahaha. Dammit, CG, someone snuck in a post before we made our other 800 points. :D

I agree with the grassroots approach, Jonathan. And I think PETA can play a more instrumental role in fueling that.


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 Post subject: Has Public Interest in Animal Rights Peaked?
PostPosted: Sun Aug 07, 2005 5:56 pm 
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Has Public Interest in Animal Rights Peaked?


Contents
By: Harold A. Herzog
References:

By: Harold A. Herzog
Department of Psychology, Western Carolina University

The animal rights movement has emerged over the past 20 years as a highly visible and effective social movement. The growth of public interest in issues associated with the treatment of animals, and especially with their use in behavioral and biomedical research, has been spectacular. The use of animals in psychological research has come under particularly heavy criticism from animal activists. For example, Rollin (1981) has referred to experimental psychology as "the field most consistently guilty of mindless activity that results in great suffering" (p. 124). Although psychologists who work with nonhuman species have mounted a counterattack (e. g. , Miller, 1985), the negative image of behavioral research with animals persists among many segments of the public. Domjan and Purdy (1995) have recently argued that even the authors of introductory textbooks seldom acknowledge the contributions of animal studies to advances in psychology.

Although it is commonly believed that the rise of widespread animal protectionism is a recent phenomenon, this is not the case. An organized antivivisection movement emerged in England and the United States in the latter half of the 19th century. Victorian animal activists, like their modern counterparts, were particularly critical of psychological research with animals (Dewsbury, 1990). However, public interest in social issues rises and falls (Hilgartner & Bosk, 1988). For example, the high point of Victorian anitvivisectionism was reached in the years preceding World War I. By 1920, interest in animal protectionism had largely declined, only to reemerge several generations later. In this comment, I report evidence that a similar decline in the public visibility of this issue may now be taking place in the United States.

Concern with a social problem is reflected by the degree of media attention it receives. The number of magazine and newspaper articles devoted to a social problem can serve as a gauge of public interest. For example, Phillips and Sechzer (1989) examined awareness of ethical issues associated with the use of animals within the scientific community by analyzing the coverage of the topic in scientific books and journals. They found an explosive rise in the number of articles appearing in the scientific literature during the period 1965-1985. I have surveyed recent trends in the coverage of topics related to the animal rights movement and the treatment of animals in popular periodicals and in major newspapers. The results of my analysis suggest that the visibilty of the animal rights movement has leveled off and may be declining.

I manually searched The Reader's Guide to Periodical Literature and conducted a computer search of Newspaper Abstracts to examine changes in the coverage of the animal rights movement over the past 20 years. The Reader's Guide is a bibliographic index that surveys 250 popular and semipopular periodicals. I began the Reader's Guide search with articles published in 1975 (Volume 35), the year of publication of Peter Singer's influential book Animal Liberation , often referred to as the bible of the animal rights movement. I ended the search with Volume 54 (December 1994). All articles related to animal welfare issues and the animal rights movement were included in the tabulation. The key words and phrases used to access the articles varied from year to year as the movement developed. They included animal experimentation, animal treatment, animal rights movement , and animal liberation. Articles dealing with a wide variety of topics, such as the treatment of particular species, the search for alternatives to the use of animals in consumer product testing, the campaign against furs, and articles about animal protection organizations (e. g. , People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals, the Humane Society of the United States, and the Animal Liberation Front) were included in the tally. Articles related to wildlife management, hunting, trapping, and the smuggling of animal products were not counted unless they were directly referenced under a topic such as animal treatment.

The bound edition of the Reader's Guide does not include newspaper articles. I searched Newspaper Abstracts through FirstSearch, an online information service. Newspaper Abstracts is a bibliographic database that covers 25 major newspapers published in the United States. (It also includes one foreign newspaper, the Manchester Guardian. Articles from the Guardian were not included in this tally. ) Newspaper Abstracts is more limited than the Reader's Guide in that it only covers issues of newspapers published since January 1, 1989. The computer search was conducted using the key word phrase animal rights or animal treatment .

The Reader's Guide results are shown in
FIG1A

Figure 1. Throughout the 1980s, there was a general increase in articles devoted to animal welfare and the animal rights movement. But the number of articles peaked in 1990 and has shown a significant decline since then. The same trend was evident in the number of articles appearing in American newspapers. The number of articles listed in Newspaper Abstracts doubled between 1989 and 1990, from 163 articles to 338 articles. Since 1990, however, there has been a steady downward trend (245 articles in 1991, 208 in 1992, 191 in 1993, and 142 in 1994).

Mutual fund brochures routinely caution readers that past performance is no guarantee of future behavior. The same proviso applies here. In the long run, the decline in coverage of the animal rights movement in newspapers and periodicals may reflect merely a transient downturn in public interest. On the other hand, it is possible that, like Victorian antivivi-sectionism, the contemporary animal rights movement is running out of steam.

There are other signs that suggest that interest in animal protectionism may have peaked. In recent years, contributions to animal rights organizations have not followed the pattern of dramatic growth seen in the 1980s. Trends in the consumption of products in the United States offer other examples. Animal activists sometimes take credit for the fact that fur sales declined 40% between 1987 and 1991. However, sales of fur coats have increased 20% over the past two years. The consumption of meat by Americans has followed a similar pattern; the number of beef cattle raised anually declined steadily between 1984 and 1988, but has increased since 1990.

Several factors might explain the decline in media coverage of the animal rights movement. First, legislative reforms such as the 1985 amendments to the Animal Welfare Act have led to enhanced oversight of animal research and may have taken some of the wind out of the sails of animal activists. Second, some animal protection organizations have shifted strategies away from the barricades and toward courtrooms and statehouses. A report by the United States Department of Justice on terrorist activities by animal activists indicated that the frequency of incidents such as the theft of laboratory animals and harassment of researchers increased steadily between 1976 and 1988, but it has subsequently shown a consistent decline (U. S. Department of Justice, 1993). Clearly, fire bombings are more likely to attract media attention than subcommittee hearings.

Finally, as evidenced by the 1994 elections, the mood of the public has become decidedly more conservative. The contemporary animal liberation movement is the direct descendant of the civil rights and women's movements (Singer, 1975). It is no surprise that animal protectionism, like other social causes based on liberal political principles (in a broad sense), may have a harder time attracting attention and public sympathy in the Gingrich era.

There is no doubt that the animal protection movement has had a major and possibly permanent impact on how people perceive other species and our moral obligation to them. A 1990 survey of Americans found that 80% of the public agreed with a statement indicating that animals have rights that should limit the way they are used (Orlans, 1993). And the movement continues to generate controversy and significant, albeit reduced, media coverage. Increasingly, the battle for the "hearts and minds," particularly with regard to the use of animals in research, is being played out in educational settings as partisans on both sides attempt to sway the opinions of young people (Blum, 1994), and the long-term effect of the debate over the moral status of animals remains to be seen. Recent trends in media coverage, however, suggest that animal rights activism may be following the cyclical pattern that is characteristic of other social movements.
References:

1. Blum, D. (1994). The monkey wars. New York: Oxford University Press.

2. Dewsbury, D. (1990). Early interactions between animal psychologists and animal activists and the founding of the APA Committee on Precautions in Animal Experimentation. American Psychologist, 45, 315-327.

3. Domjan, M. & Purdy, J. E. (1995). Animal research in psychology: More than meets the eye of the general psychology student. American Psychlogist, 50, 496-503.

4. Hilgartner, S. & Bosk, C. L. (1988). The rise and fall of social problems: A public arena model. American Journal of Sociology, 94, 53-78.

5. Miller, N. E. (1985). The value of behavioral research on animals. American Psychologist, 40, 423-440.

6. Orlans, F. B. (1993). In the name of science: Issues in responsible animal experimentation. New York: Oxford University Press.

7. Phillips, M. T. & Sechzer, J. A. (1989). Animal research and ethical conflict: An analysis of the scientific literature: 1966-1986. New York: Springer-Verlag.

8. Rollin, B. E. (1981). Animal rights and human morality. Buffalo, NY: Prometheus.

9. Singer, P. (1975). Animal liberation. New York: New York Review of Books.

10. U. S. Department of Justice. (1993). Report to Congress on the extent and effects of domestic and international terrorism on animal enterprises. Washington, DC: Author.
Copyright 1996 by the American Psychological Association, Inc.
For personal use only--not for distribution
This publication is protected by US and international copyright laws and its content may not be copied without the copyright holder's express written permission except for the print or download capabilities of the retrieval software used for access. This content is intended solely for the use of the individual user.
Source: American Psychologist. Vol. 50 (11) November 1995, pp. 945-947
Accession Number: amp5011945 Digital Object Identifier: 10.1037/0003-066X.50.11.945


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PostPosted: Sun Aug 07, 2005 6:20 pm 
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jonathan wrote:
this is hard to reply to, as much as id due to the subject matter as to how much you guys bloody write!


:roll: :roll: :roll: :oops: :oops: :oops:

regarding chickens already in existence, their impending death is not something that doesnt affect me seriously, only that i have to look at it in a utilitarian fashion and think; in the next 50years are we going to become more vegan as a species or eat more and more meat?
if we continue to make concessions to the meat industry ('we will get off your back if you inccrease cage size/kill more humanely') we will eat more and more meat. if we put our foot down and say no, this is wrong, which ever way you do it, then people will start to come around.

okay jonathan, fair enough. So i guess at least we have narrowed it down to what exactly we disagree on. I cannot be utilatarian when I know what that stance will mean for the animals that are going to be scalded alive - the ones that I know will never have the chance to be affected by today's vegan outreach. So I feel the need to negotiate with their dispecable fmurderes for their more humane execution, :cry: while simultaneously working to promote veganism. :D



regarding peta and the media, maybe the national media is not the most effective way of doing it. i think that it needs to be done on a more interpersonal level. as in, you try to help your friend go vegan, who in turn may help someone else. you do animal rights stands, offer friendly advice and try to be a good example of vegan health. YES I AGREE WITH YOU HERE. I GUESS I WOULD WANT TO ATTACK THESE INDUSTRIES FROM EVERY POSSIBLE ANGLE - GRASS ROOTS, TELEVISION AIRTIME WITH COMMERCIALS LIKE THE ONE I DESCRIBED EARLIER THAT WAS VERY EFFECTIVE IN RAISING AWARENESS, ETC.

its too far removed from daily life if people see peta ads on tv - they can just switch off. but if they are talking to a real, live, healthy vegan, they may be more inclined to listen than to someone who dresses up as a lettuce. veganism cant really be conveyed over the media, its a grassroots movement, and in the grassroots is where it is most effective. I AGREE THAT CHANGING PEOPLE ONE ON ONE LIVE FACE TO FACE IS ONE OF THE MOST IMPORTANT AND EFFECTUAL WAYS TO EFFECT CHNAGE. BUT I ALSO THINK THAT YOU ARE DOWNPLAYING THE POWER [color=blue]OF IMAGES OF SUFFERING. I THINK THAT THEY CAN BE VERY EFFECTIVE AND VERY POWERFUL, WHICH IS WHY I WOULD LOVE TO SEE MORE OF THEM AIRING ON TV. [/color]jonathan


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PostPosted: Sun Aug 07, 2005 6:21 pm 
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Stegosaurus

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brendan wrote:

Hahaha. Dammit, CG, someone snuck in a post before we made our other 800 points. :D

.




:lol: :lol: :lol: :lol: :lol: :lol:


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PostPosted: Sun Aug 07, 2005 6:29 pm 
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Stegosaurus

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brendan wrote:
[ Eh?



:shock: are you closet Canadian? :lol:


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 Post subject:
PostPosted: Sun Aug 07, 2005 6:32 pm 
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lastly, like i said, we arent really ending our campaign against Yum once yum adopts the changes any more than we have "ended" our campaign against McDonalds, because any vegan outreach campaign is BY DEFINITION anti-McDonalds, etc.

this is a simple but often overlooked point. :shock: 8)


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 Post subject:
PostPosted: Mon Aug 08, 2005 5:02 am 
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Elephant
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whilst i certainly feel that there do need to be more images out there of exactly what animal production is, the peta ads you guys have already polarise many people against the idea of animal rights. they do not want to be a associated with peta 'loonies' and subsequently close their mind to it.
i think the written press is more effective than tv - a picture of an abused animal wont go away when its printed.

jonathan

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PostPosted: Mon Aug 08, 2005 5:25 am 
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I don't think that anyone has found a really effective way of turning people vegan. I think it's good that Peta are experimenting and trying to find a way to do it, and I understand their extreme campaigns. I will admit to not being very well educated about Peta. But I think it should be remembered that there isn't a simple way to get inside people's minds and change their core beliefs, and if there was, then Peta would be doing that.


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PostPosted: Wed Aug 10, 2005 11:14 am 
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Quote:
AS shocking and appalling as these investigations are, they STILL dont make it on the evening news. Have you ever seen a NEWS documentary on meet your meat?

Quote:
I manually searched The Reader's Guide to Periodical Literature and conducted a computer search of Newspaper Abstracts to examine changes in the coverage of the animal rights movement over the past 20 years.

I think it is a mistake to use the mainstream media as a guide to how effective the animal rights campaign is. The news media are increasingly owned by fewer and fewer corporations, the goal of which is to maximize profit while minimizing effort. The same news stories get printed over and over again and these news stories tend either to push an agenda of the corporate media or to placate advertisers. Whether you are talking about animal rights, the War on Iraq, labor practices affecting immigrants, or torture and abuse in the american judicial system, minority viewpoints are seldom heard.

There are other media sources. DemocracyNow! is one of the best:

http://www.democracynow.org/

Here are some stories they have carried:

Quote:
7/21/04 Video Shows Abuse of Chickens at KFC Supplier:
An investigator for the animal rights group PETA captured video showing chickens being kicked, stomped and thrown against a wall by workers at a supplier for Kentucky Fried Chicken, which has been under pressure since last year over the treatment of animals. Officials from Yum! Brands Inc., which owns the fast-food chain, said that the employee or employees responsible will be terminated. The footage was secretly taken at a plant in West Virginia by a PETA activist who worked there from October to May. PETA says its investigator also obtained eyewitness testimony about employees "ripping birds” beaks off, spray painting their faces, twisting their heads off, spitting tobacco into their mouths and eyes, and breaking them in half - all while the birds are still alive." PETA said it planned to ask West Virginia authorities to prosecute plant employees and managers under state animal-cruelty laws.


Quote:
1/16/04 CBS Bars PETA, MoveOn Ads From Super Bowl
CBS is refusing to sell ad time during the Super Bowl to two organizations, MoveOn and the People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals because the network claimed it did not accept advocacy advertising. MoveOn recently held a contest called “Bush in 30 Seconds” that asked for fillmakers to make a 30-second anti-Bush ad. More than 1100 videos were submitted. MoveOn planned to show the winning ad during the Super Bowl. PETA was planning to broadcast an ad that charged eating meat can cause impotence.


Quote:
04/23/2003 Story: Discussion On Use Of Animals In The Military

"War is not healthy for children and other living things."

These words were first written by mothers in the United States during the Vietnam War. They were concerned that their children were being sent halfway around the world to kill the children of Vietnamese mothers. They put the statement on a postcard and sent it to Congress.

Since then, the words have become a powerful description of wartime destruction of not only people but also animals and the environment.

In the invasion of Iraq the Pentagon reportedly has enlisted dolphins, chickens, dogs, sea lions and pigeons. Plus there are reports that Moracco gave the U.S. 2,000 monkeys to assist with de-mining projects.

Dolphins are scouting seaports in search of mines. The dolphins are equipped with cameras that transmit video images back to their handlers. When they find a mine they are trained to report back by playing with a so-called "I've found something" rubber ball. When the dolphins find a mine, their minder sends a group of human divers to the area to detonate it. The Washington Post reports that Atlantic bottlenose dolphin is the seafaring equivalent of bomb-sniffing dogs.

The Marines have been using chickens and pigeons in Kuwait to detect poison gas. But the Marines have admitted that dozens of the birds never made it to the Middle East after dying in transit.

The deceased chickens and pigeons will hardly be the first U.S. animals not to return to the states after a war. According to PETA, 5,000 dogs served alongside U.S. troops in Vietnam. Only 140 came home. Some died in Vietnam but most were abandoned by the military.

* William R. Rivas-Rivas, PETA Campaign Coordinator.
* David Helvarg, Author of Blue Frontier - Saving America's Living Seas and founder of the Blue Frontier Campaign in Washington D.


I am sure there are others. What we need to remember is that each one of us, when we post our thoughts on the internet, become part of the underground media... a non-traditional source of information. When we combine our thoughts and efforts, I believe we can have a greater impact than the mainstream media.

_________________
As long as men massacre animals, they will kill each other. Indeed, he who sows the seeds of murder and pain cannot reap the joy of love --- Leonardo Da Vinci


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PostPosted: Mon Aug 15, 2005 7:12 pm 
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sirdle wrote:
[I think it is a mistake to use the mainstream media as a guide to how effective the animal rights campaign is. The news media are increasingly owned by fewer and fewer corporations, the goal of which is to maximize profit while minimizing effort. The same news stories get printed over and over again and these news stories tend either to push an agenda of the corporate media or to placate advertisers. Whether you are talking about animal rights, the War on Iraq, labor practices affecting immigrants, or torture and abuse in the american judicial system, minority viewpoints are seldom heard.

.


Aint that the sad truth!!! :cry:


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