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Protein and Amino Acids Book

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I guess military wants "the biggest bang for its bucks" so this books looks for highest performance, the greatest profits for minimal input. I guess it have real, objective and realistic view on protein intake.



It looks like there is whole book online, you just have to click on the image.

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Troy, thanks for posting this.


Neven, thanks for pointing out that you can read it online.


I've read several of the chapters - great stuff in there. If you read any of them, go beyond the references so you don't miss the panel discussions.


There are so many possible topics of discussion from the book that I barely know where to begin! If anyone wants to read the chapters and then have a discussion (by phone would be much easier), please pm me.


I know there a several members here who follow or are investigating a lower protein diet. And there are some who follow a very high protein diet. I've done high protein at 2 gms/kg (with supplements - BCAAs, creatine cycling, glutamine) for bulking and am now in a cutting phase with 1.2 gms/kg protein (BCAAs, glutamine, creatine cycling). When I start bulking again, I plan to do so at the same lower protein range. I'm also going to stop taking BCAAs and glutamine when my current supply runs out. I'll continue cycling creatine for the next year, most likely.


If anyone else is adding mass at my current protein intake (1.2 gms/kg), I'm very interested in hearing about your progress.

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Thanks DV, I stumbled upon it while doing searches for the optimal distribution of amino acids recommended by the Institute of Medicine's Food and Nutrition Board.


Here are some of the author's recommendations that I found interesting:


Major Recommendations


As recommended in earlier IOM reports (IOM, 1992, 1995), the importance of adequate nutrient intake (with sufficient energy to match output and to avoid weight loss) should be emphasized to soldiers as the primary means of maintaining lean tissue mass.


Given adequate nutritional intake, soldiers should not use protein supplements for muscle building.


Single amino acid supplements Should not be used to modify cognitive performance, due to potential toxicity and insufficient evidence of efficacy.


Current MRDAs for protein should be maintained. Provided that energy intake is adequate, no increase in MRDAs is necessary for pregnant or lactating women.


Protein supplied in operational rations should be of high quality and digestibility.


Energy intakes should be adequate, and source of energy should be consumed within 2 h of an intense bout of endurance exercise, to replace depleted muscle glycogen.


Military researchers and physicians should pay careful attention to civilian research on the effects of treatment with anabolic hormones on recovery from bums and other injuries. Where appropriate, military-specific models should be developed.


The military should test the ability of Supplemental glutamine and arginine to enhance the immune response and decrease rates of in-faction under field conditions and in seriously injured hospitalized patients.


Given the high protein content of operational rations, adequate fluid intake should be emphasized, as recommended by the Fluid Doctrine (IOM, 1994).


11 Physical Exertion, Amino Acid and Protein Metabolism, and Protein Requirements




Exercise stimulates amino acid catabolism but the extent of the stimulation is too little to have a major effect in contributing to a negative nitrogen balance.


Most food contains sufficient protein such that so long as energy balance is maintained sufficient protein is delivered to meet the requirements for amino acid oxidation and also probably for preservation and even growth of the lean body mass.


There is no evidence that supplementation with individual amino acids is of benefit to physical performance or to maintenance or growth of lean body mass, especially muscle.


In summary, therefore, rations for military personnel engaged in a high rate of physical activity should have the following characteristics:


Will be sufficient in delivery of energy.


Contain protein in the range of 0.8 g/kg body weight/day.


Need contain no extra amino acid supplements.


15 Supplementation with Branched-Chain Amino Acids, Glutamine, and Protein Hydrolysates: Rationale for Effects on Metabolism and Performance




No conclusive evidence supports net protein breakdown and increased amine acid oxidation during demanding endurance exercise in the laboratory and under field conditions. When energy balance is maintained, 100 g of protein should be more than enough to cover the protein requirements of subjects regularly involved in high workload exercise.


No evidence suggests that BCAA ingestion would optimize athletic performance during demanding endurance exercise. A potential risk exists that BCAA ingestion could lead to premature fatigue or loss of motor coordination under conditions where glycogen stores have been emptied (e.g., high workload with insufficient food intake).


Glutamine may be useful to support the immune system during high workload conditions, but solid evidence of the link between glutamine and the immune system and of the usefulness of glutamine supplementation has not yet been published.


Glycogen resynthesis immediately following demanding exercise can be accelerated by the addition of protein to the ingested CHO solutions. This is particularly relevant when subjects maintain a high daily energy expenditure (> 20-25MJ) for several days or weeks (e.g., Tour de France cyclists and those engaged in military operations). Failure to replenish the glycogen stores overnight will impede performance on the following day.


16 Dietary Supplements Aimed at Enhancing Performance: Efficacy and Safety Considerations




The FASEB/LSRO report on the safety of amine acids as dietary supplements concluded the following:


There is no nutritional rationale for the use of amine acids as dietary supplements, and such a practice can be dangerous.


Supplemental amine acids should be used for pharmacological rather than nutritional purposes.


The extant scientific literature fails to support a safe upper limit for supplementation of any amino acid beyond that found in dietary protein.


Appropriate testing in animals and humans is required before the safety of supplemental amino acids can be adequately assessed. Several additional recommendations may be made:


Alternative proteins of vegetable origin should be considered when designing long-term studies.


Manipulation of serotonergic function with carbohydrate may constitute a relatively benign intervention for lessening the symptoms of the premenstrual period in some women.


Choline supplementation for endurance activities should be considered and requires careful investigation under a variety of applicable military conditions.


It is therefore recommended that approaches to fortify military rations with supplemental amino acids, protein, or additional compounds be initiated. However, appropriate safeguards for the welfare of subjects must be treated as such interventions may result in adverse effects, especially if individual amino acids are used at supranutritional doses over a long period of time.

My summary of the above summary:


Protein and amino acid supplements are not necessary. Good quality food is.


Edited by Troy
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Right now, I am consuming about 2.2 g/kg. After skimming this book, I think a reduction is necessary.

Me also.

I think opinions in this book are more reliable than bodybuilding magazine or bodybuilders recommendations.

Also good point in the article is if you consume a big meal probably your body won't digest it so good as when a small meal is eaten.

Lower protein intake leads to better digestion efficiency.

Also one good thought in the book is that you don't have to constantly stick to a meal by meal in intervals of 2-3 hours, its good, but if the situation is like that you can go by without meal for 5 hours and it will not lead to protein re-synthesis.

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I have been considering reducing my intake quite a bit and stopping my protein isolate supplementation. This is really helping with that decision. Here is something interesting I found while reading it:



Resolution of the Debate


The practical implications of the debate between Young and Millward revolve primarily around lysine: the lysine content of cereal proteins is limiting for growth. If Millward is correct, then all dietary proteins, whether plant or animal, contain enough lysine and other amine acids to support adequate protein nutriture of adults if consumed in amounts that meet the protein requirement (although some military personnel in the 18-22-year age group are still growing, a factor that might influence the requirement for some amine acids). Millward has shown that wheat protein, a protein that is particularly low in lysine, is well utilized in adults in the postprandial period, even when net protein synthesis occurs. He suggests that the low level of lysine in this protein is supplemented by the tissue free amine acid pools. However, older data from Longenecker (Longenecker, 1961, 1963; Longenecker and Hause, 1959, 1961) show that the ingestion of wheat protein by dogs or humans may result in decreased plasma lysine levels accompanied by increased levels of other indispensable amine acids. Such data support the contention that a postprandial breakdown of body protein may supply the indispensable amine acids necessary for synthesis. However, under such circumstances, other IAAs may be used less efficiently for protein synthesis when lysine is limiting in the protein consumed, which supports Young's belief that the indispensable amino acid requirement is higher than currently recommended. Thus, the controversy over requirements for IAAs is still unresolved.


The implications of this debate for the current state of knowledge of protein and amino acid requirements for the military depend in part on the current intake of dietary protein and amino acids by military personnel and in part on other factors influencing protein requirements in these individuals, as discussed below.


From most of what I am reading, it seems that it doesn't matter a terrible amount what your amino acid balance is, just so long as you are meeting the proper amount of grams per day. Also, with how much stress is being put on adequate intakes of lysine, it appears that legumes are an ideal source, even if little to no cereal protein or other protein high in methionine is consumed. However, they even state in the section above that any food, plant or animal, provides plenty of lysine. Lots to think about. I think I am going to be reading this on and off all summer.

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The Institute of Medicine's Food and Nutrition Board recommends the following amino acid ratio:


-------------mg/g of protein

Tryptophan 7

Threonine 27

Isoleucine 25

Leucine 55

Lysine 51

Methionine+Cystine 25

Phenylalanine+Tyrosine 47

Valine 32

Histidine 18


I don't know the research behind this recommendation, however, I am taking an educated guess and saying that this recommendation is based on the proper function of all body systems. Exercise will likely change this ratio and this is what DV, other forum members and I were trying to uncover in a similar thread regarding protein powders and amino acid profiles of the powders. This thread may shed some light on what we were trying to get at earlier or at least give a foundation on which to build. DV, is this information new to you or is this table common knowledge...? anyone else feel free to expand...

Edited by Troy
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Here is the most recent WHO information I can find: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/trs/WHO_TRS_935_eng.pdf


See page 150 for the chart on essential amino acid requirements. Interestingly, some of the values have more than doubled since the 1985 report. Please note that this is a report of a joint FAO/WHO/UNU expert consultation from 2002 in Geneva, Switzerland. I haven't investigated whether the WHO has changed its official amino acid requirements based on this report.


You can certainly get different numbers from different sources!

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It is fairly encouraging to see studies where people were fed a wheat-based diet (wheat scoring a 0.40 PDCAAS or 0.25 for gluten) and managed to not become deficient on lysine.


I also found this interesting tidbit on page 36:


It is unclear whether the protein gained during periods of increased protein intake is retained, or whether the protein lost during periods of low protein

intake is regained if the treatments are continued, as there has been no systematic study of body composition of adults in relation to variation of protein intakes within the normal range in well-fed societies. However, attempts to increase muscle mass by increases in protein intake within the normal range have generally failed. Thus Lemon et al. (30) fed protein at 2.62 g/kg per day or 1.35 g/kg per day for 1 month during intensive weight training in a randomized double-blind cross-over study, and found no difference in measured strength (voluntary and electrically evoked) and muscle mass (density, creatinine excretion, muscle area by CAT scan, and biceps nitrogen content).


So getting more protein than what is roughly 0.6g/lb a day may cause no difference. Are there studies that have documented the difference if subjects ingested, say, 2g/lb of bodyweight? It would be interesting to know.

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Yeah, I know Potter recommended far less. I think he was saying he gets 1/4g/lb of protein per day. I was picturing him saying how we are getting closer to the "ideal" amount.


And he is still gaining mass!

But to put the joke on the side, I really enjoy reading his posts.

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