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  1. May 14, 2009 — Vegan and vegetarian diets may protect against obesity and type 2 diabetes, according to the results of a cohort study reported in the May issue of Diabetes Care. "The European Prospective Investigation found that BMI [body mass index] was highest in meat eaters, lowest in vegans, and intermediate in fish eaters," write Serena Tonstad, MD, PhD, from Loma Linda University in Loma Linda, California, and colleagues. "The protective effects of vegetarianism against overweight may be due to avoidance of major food groups, displacement of calories toward food groups that are more satiating, or other factors. Based on a review of experimental data, investigators have suggested that the portfolio of foods found in vegetarian diets may carry metabolic advantages for the prevention of type 2 diabetes." The goal of this study was to compare the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in people following different types of vegetarian diets vs that in nonvegetarians, using a study cohort of 22,434 men and 38,469 women enrolled in the Adventist Health Study-2 conducted from 2002 to 2006. Seventh-Day Adventist church members across North America provided self-reported demographic, anthropometric, medical history, and lifestyle data, and a food-frequency questionnaire was used to categorize the type of vegetarian diet. Multivariate-adjusted logistic regression allowed calculation of odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals [CIs]. Vegans had the lowest BMI (23.6 kg/m2). There was a progressive increase in BMI with increased content of animal products in the diet: 25.7 kg/m2 in lacto-ovo vegetarians, 26.3 kg/m2 in pesco-vegetarians, 27.3 kg/m2 in semi-vegetarians, and 28.8 kg/m2 in nonvegetarians. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes also increased with increasing consumption of animal products: 2.9% for the vegan diet, 3.2% for the lacto-ovo diet, 4.8% for the pesco-vegetarian diet, 6.1% for the semi-vegetarian diet, and 7.6% for the nonvegetarian diet. Compared with nonvegetarians, vegetarians had a lower risk for type 2 diabetes, after adjustment for age, sex, ethnicity, education, income, physical activity, television watching, sleep habits, alcohol use, and BMI. The OR was 0.51 for vegans (95% CI, 0.40 - 0.66), 0.54 for lacto-ovo vegetarians (95% CI, 0.49 - 0.60), 0.70 for pesco-vegetarians (95% CI, 0.61 - 0.80), and 0.76 for semi-vegetarians (95% CI, 0.65 - 0.90). Limitations of this study include lack of data on glycemic load of the diets; cross-sectional data, precluding drawing of causal inferences; inability to assess physical activity for approximately one sixth of the cohort; measurement errors involved in food-frequency questionnaires; all variables self-reported; the possibility that diabetes may have been underreported in the vegan and other vegetarians because of their lower BMIs; and cohort not representative of the general population. "The 5-unit BMI difference between vegans and nonvegetarians indicates a substantial potential of vegetarianism to protect against obesity," the study authors write. "Increased conformity to vegetarian diets protected against risk of type 2 diabetes after lifestyle characteristics and BMI were taken into account. Pesco- and semi-vegetarian diets afforded intermediate protection." The National Institutes of Health and the School of Public Health, Loma Linda University, supported this study. The study authors have disclosed no relevant financial relationships. Diabetes Care. 2009;32:791-796. Clinical Context Vegetarian diets may play a beneficial role to promote health and prevent obesity, and vegetarian diets cover a spectrum from those that leave out all animal products to those that include fish. Vegetarian diets may also protect against type 2 diabetes, and the Nurses' Health Study demonstrated that intakes of red meat and processed meats increased the risk for type 2 diabetes. This is a cross-sectional study of a prospective cohort of Seventh-Day Adventist church members in the United States and Canada from 2002 to 2006. The study examines the link between vegetarian diets and the risk for obesity and type 2 diabetes. Study Highlights * The Adventist Health Study-2 recruited and observed 97,000 church members 30 years and older for 4 years. * The cohort is considered homogeneous for some lifestyle behaviors because of low rates of smoking and alcohol consumption, both of which are discouraged by the church. * Baseline data were collected with use of a 50-page self-administered questionnaire that asked about lifestyle such as diet, exercise, and smoking. * Diet was ascertained with a food frequency questionnaire with 130 hard-coded food items. * For each item, there were 7 to 9 frequency categories. * Diabetes cases were ascertained by asking about clinician diagnosis of type 1 or 2 diabetes in the past 12 months. * Race was dichotomized as black and nonblack. * Vegans were defined as those who reported no intake of animal products. * Lacto-ovo vegetarians consumed dairy products and/or eggs 1 or more times per month but no fish or meat. * Pesco-vegetarians consumed fish once or more per month but no meat. * Semi-vegetarians consumed meat or poultry less than once a week and 1 or more times per month. * Nonvegetarians consumed animal products 1 or more times a week. * Physical activity was documented as 6 levels of intensity, and the amount of time spent on weekdays and weekends was reported by participants. * Sleep duration and time spent watching television were considered. * 1007 subjects participated in a calibration study to validate self reports of diabetes. * After excluding those with type 1 diabetes and with missing data, 60,903 (22,434 men and 38,469 women) persons were included, of whom 5.6% reported type 2 diabetes. * Mean age was 56 to 62 years, 62% were women, one quarter were black, and mean BMI was 23.4 to 32.5 kg/m2. * Those with diabetes were more likely to be older, black, have higher BMI, and less physical activity. * Only 1.8% of the subjects had smoked 1 or more cigarettes daily in the past 12 months. * BMI was lowest in vegans (23.6 kg/m2), higher in lacto-ovo vegetarians (25.7 kg/m2), pesco vegetarians (26.3 kg/m2), semi-vegetarians (27.3 kg/m2), and highest in nonvegetarians (28.8 kg/m2), with an increase of 5 units between vegans and nonvegetarians. * The prevalence of diabetes increased with increase in intake of animal products. * The prevalence of diabetes was 2.9%, 3.2%, 4.8%, and 6.1% for vegans, lacto-ovo vegetarians, semi-vegetarians, and nonvegetarians, respectively, for a doubling of risk between vegans and nonvegetarians. * After adjustment for multiple factors such as education, income, time watching television, alcohol use, and BMI, the respective ORs for diabetes were 0.54, 0.70, and 0.76 for vegans, lacto-ovo vegetarians, and semi-vegetarians vs nonvegetarians. * The authors concluded that being vegetarian was protective against obesity and type 2 diabetes.
  2. Hey all, I am full time in school with heavy study loads and little time for much else outside of working out and school. Thinking about anything else just isn't an option. Right now, I'm 6'2, 250 at 14% BF. According to cutting formulas I have seen, I should take in 3000 cal, 250g protein, 200g carb, 133g fat. Sounds good, I'm pretty sure I can do this, but I'm handicapped by being a month-old veggie (sorry not a fully committed vegan yet). I have a handle on solid protein sources and I know I can get my fats from everywhere it seems but ... I think what I'm asking is for some help putting foods together for my time in school. There are days when I'm there from 8 until midnight so nutrition is vital for me. My ultimate goal is to get down to 220lb and I'll be tight. With all that out there, what can I bring with me throughout the day to help me reach these macro ratios? FYI, I start off the day with a 1/2 -3/4 cup oats with 2tbsp honey. Postworkout I have 42g whey and 1 serving of waxymaize. An hour after my workout, I have a 1/2 cup browned tempeh with 3 whole omega-3 eggs, and 3-4 whites. After that, I'm flat out ? when it comes to the rest of the day. I know I need to consume almonds and other nuts for fats, but can I ask for some other help? What else can I bring with me that I can either toss in the microwave or eat as is? I apologize for the scattered thoughts, that's how I roll with my thinking. Thank you all VERY MUCH!!!
  3. Five Finger Death Punch Killswitch Engage Red (when I need to focus) -Doc
  4. Hey everyone, I was once a member here and I think my account evaporated but I have returned with a new alias. I'm a vegan from Virginia Beach, VA, studying medicine at Eastern Virginia Medical School. I appreciate what this site has become ... I was reminded of it by the latest issue of Vegetarian Mag. where I saw Robert. Happy New Year -Doc
  5. Squat: 395 Bench: 320 Deadlift: 405 Total: 1120 Body Weight: 252
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